What is HDMI?

HDMI stands for High-Definition Multimedia Interface. It is a standard that supports high-definition digital video and multi-channel digital audio on a single cable. The HDMI connection transmits both video and audio data in a digital format, unlike the analog VGA or DVI connections, which transmit only video data. 

What is an HDMI cable?

An HDMI cable is a type of cable that connects a device such as Blu-ray player, game console, or streaming device like a Roku player to a TV, monitor, or projector. It carries both audio and video signals from the device to the TV. The main differentiator between an HDMI cable and other cables is that it can carry both digital audio and video signals over one cable. The HDMI cable is an all-in-one cable that transmits uncompressed digital audio and video signals in a single cable. There are different types of HDMI cables, such as HDMI 1.4a, HDMI 2.0a or HDMI 2.1.


What is an HDMI adapter?

The HDMI standard defines five different connectors that are based upon a 19-pin layout. To convert between different HDMI connectors, you are going to need an HDMI adapter. The one thing all HDMI adapters or adapter cables have in common is that there is no signal conversion taking place. The HDMI adapter simply makes sure that the 19 pins of the connectors are connected properly on each end. For example, to connect a GoPro to a HDTV, a Micro HDMI to Standard HDMI adapter is required. HDMI adapters are also available as HDMI cables with different connectors on each end.


What is an HDMI converter?

Unlike HDMI adapters, which do not convert the signal, HDMI converters are specifically designed to do just that. A HDMI converter is a device that converts an HDMI signal to another format so it can be displayed on a monitor or TV. For example, if you have a computer with an HDMI output but your monitor only has VGA input, you will need a HDMI to VGA converter to connect the two. Another common scenario is the connection of a DisplayPort-equipped laptop or desktop PC to a HDMI display, for which you will need a DisplayPort to HDMI Adapter.

These are three common types of HDMI converters:

  • HDMI to DisplayPort converter – converters the HDMI signal to a DisplayPort signal
  • HDMI to VGA converter – converters digital HDMI to analog VGA
  • HDMI to DVI converter - changes the input signal from HDMI to DVI



What is HDMI Alt Mode?

HDMI Alt Mode can be used to power an external monitor from the USB-C port on your laptop. This means you can connect your laptop to an HDMI-enabled TV or display and get a clear, uncompressed video feed.

Applications for HDMI Alt Mode

Connect a USB-C equipped laptop, smartphone, tablet, or desktop PC to a HDMI display, such as a PC Monitor, HDTV or projector. The HDMI Alt mode is perfectly well suited to display your laptop output on a 4K big screen TV, i.e., for video playback. As far as gaming is concerned, the lack of 4K 60 fps (and HDR) may rule out its use for serious fast paced 4K gaming. On the other hand, if you are limiting yourself to city builders and the likes, you will be getting great results with HDMI Alt mode.

What will you need to use HDMI Alt Mode

The USB-C device must support the HDMI Alt mode. Not all USB-C equipped devices do, so this must be confirmed first. Secondly, you will need a USB Type-C to HDMI adapter cable. This is not a converter, but a simple adapter, and that means that no signal conversion is taking place.

Features of HDMI Alt Mode

The HDMI Alt mode provides the same functionality as HDMI 1.4b. That means you will be able to transmit 4K @ 30 Hz video with 3D, Consumer Electronic Control (CEC), Audio Return Channel (ARC), HDMI Ethernet Channel (HEC) and Dolby 5.1 surround sound audio.

Limitations of HDMI Alt Mode

As the HDMI Alt mode only supports HDMI 1.4b, it lacks features introduced in later HDMI 2.x standards. That includes 4K HDR video, 4k@60Hz and anything higher than that. 


HDMI for Gaming – Considerations

High-refresh rate gaming requires components supporting HDMI 2.0 or better, whether you want to run 4K video at 60 fps or 1440p at 144 fps. HDMI 2.0 supports transmission rates of 18.0 Gb/s and because of that, you can play the latest next-gen games in high FPS HDR glory – provided your gaming hardware supports it. 

Future-proof your HDMI gaming hardware with HDMI 2.1 components that provide 4k gaming at 120 fps.

If you are into gaming and are looking for cutting edge fidelity, you have to pay attention to the HDMI specification if you are in the market for HDMI converters, extenders or HDMI cables.


Common HDMI Acronyms

Consumer Electronics Control (CEC)

Control of up to 15 connected HDMI devices by using one of their remote controls. As an example, thanks to CEC, you can use your ROKU remote to control the volume of your TV, or your home theater system.

Audio Return Channel (ARC)

ARC allows HDTVs with smart apps such as Netflix to send the audio stream from the TV back to the home theater system by using the same HDMI cable that is already connecting the TV to the home theater. Thank s to ARC, additional audio specific cables like COAX or TOSLink are no longer needed.

HDMI Ethernet Channel (HEC)

HDMI Ethernet Channel technology combines audio, data and video streams into a single HDMI cable. HEC enables IP-based applications over HDMI and provides a bidirectional Ethernet communication.

High-dynamic-range (HDR)

High-dynamic-range (HDR) imaging is a technique that captures a greater range of luminosity than a traditional camera, which allows for images with more depth and richer colors. HDR video is a relatively new trend that makes colors more vibrant and realistic. The difference between HDR and normal video can be seen by comparing a scene shot in daylight to one shot with an overcast sky. The colors in the daylight scene are brighter and more vivid, while the colors in the overcast scene are duller.

In PC and Console Gaming, HDR has become a fixture in recent years with the latest generations of consoles all supporting HDR@4K, including PlayStation 4/5 models, XBOX Series S/X, among others. It should be noted that you will need to have an HDR-capable display to take advantage of this technology.

HDR versus Standard


HDMI Standards and Technical Specifications

The HDMI 2.1 standard is the latest update to the HDMI specification, and it offers several significant improvements over its predecessor. The first is that it supports resolutions of up to 8K (7680 x 4320 pixels), which is four times the resolution of 4K (3840 x 2160 pixels). This is important for future television technologies that are being developed now. The second improvement is that the new standard can support data rates up to 42.6 Gbps, which means that HDMI 2.1 can transmit 4K video with a 120 Hz refresh rate, or 8K video at 60 Hz. 

HDMI Standards

SpecificationYearMax. Resolution @ Refresh RateMax. Transmission RateMax. Data rateHDRAudio Support
1.020021080p @ 60 Hz4.95 Gb/s3.96 Gb/sno8 audio channels
1.1/1.220051440p @ 30 Hz4.95 Gb/s8.16 Gb/snoDVD-Audio, One-Bit Audio
1.3/1.420094K @ 30 Hz10.2 Gb/s8.16 Gb/snoARC, Dolby TrueHD, DTS-HD
2.020135K @ 30 Hz18.0 Gb/s14.4 Gb/syesHE-AAC, DRA, 32 audio channels
2.120178K @ 60 Hz48.0 Gb/s42.6 Gb/syeseARC

HDMI Standards

The table below shows which video resolutions and refresh rates are supported by the various HDMI standards. With this information you can quickly ascertain, which HDMI standard and by extension, what kind of HDMI cable you need.

Refresh rate (Hz) Required data rateHDMI 1.3–1.4bHDMI 2.0HDMI 2.1
1080p1920 × 1080301.58 Gbit/ssupportedsupportedsupported
1080p1920 × 1080603.20 Gbit/ssupportedsupportedsupported
1080p1920 × 10801206.59 Gbit/ssupportedsupportedsupported
1080p1920 × 10801448.00 Gbit/ssupportedsupportedsupported
1080p1920 × 108024014.00 Gbit/sonly 4:2:0supportedsupported
1440p2560 × 1440302.78 Gbit/ssupportedsupportedsupported
1440p2560 × 1440605.63 Gbit/ssupportedsupportedsupported
1440p2560 × 1440757.09 Gbit/ssupportedsupportedsupported
1440p2560 × 144012011.59 Gbit/sonly 4:2:0supportedsupported
1440p2560 × 144014414.08 Gbit/sonly 4:2:0supportedsupported
1440p2560 × 144024024.62 Gbit/snoonly 4:2:0supported

HDMI Connectors

There are currently 5 different HDMI connectors, two of which are quite common and can be found in many products. Those are HDMI Type A, B, C, D and E. The most important connectors are the 19-pin HDMI Type A, Mini HDMI Type C and Micro HDMI Type D.

HDMI Type A19RegularDVD/Blu-ray/Ultra HD players, computers, media streaming boxes such as Roku or FireTV,
cable/satellite boxes, and video game consoles
HDMI Type B29RegularObsolete
HDMI Type C19MiniPortable devices such as Laptops, tablets or cameras
HDMI Type D19MicroSmall portable devices, incl. Smart Phones, GoPro type Action cameras,
small video recording devices and portable media players
HDMI Type E19RegularAutomotive

HDMI Pinouts

While all HDMI connectors have 19 pins, the pinout is not always identical.

HDMI Type A Connector Pinout

By far the most popular HDMI connector, the HDMI Type A connector can be found in most Television sets, media players and streamers, PC graphics cards as well as gaming consoles. 

HDMI Pin NumberSignal
1TMDS Date 2+ 
2TMDS Data 2 shield 
3TMDS Data 2- 
4TMDS Data 1+ 
5TMDS Data 1 shield 
6TMDS Data 1- 
7TMDS Data 0+ 
8TMDS Data 0 shield 
9TMDS Data 0- 
10TMDS Clock+ 
11TMDS Clock shield 
12TMDS Clock- 
14HEC Data- 
15SCL (Serial Clock for DDC)
16SDA (Serial Data Line for DDC)
17DDC / CEC / HEC Ground 
18+5 V Power (50 mA max) 
19Hot Plug Detect (1.3) / HEC Data+ (1.4)

Mini HDMI Type C Connector Pinout

Not nearly as common as the HDMI Type A connector, the Type C connector is still widely adopted in Laptops, DSLRs and full-size tablets.

HDMI Pin NumberSignal
1TMDS Data2 Shield
2TMDS Data2+ 
3TMDS Data2-
4TMDS Data1 Shield
5TMDS Data1+
6TMDS Data1-
7TMDS Data0 Shield
8TMDS Data0+
9TMDS Data0-
10TMDS Clock Shield
11TMDS Clock+
12TMDS Clock-
13DDC/CEC Ground
15SCL (DDC lock)
16SDA (DDC data)
18+5 V Power (power EDID/DDC)
19Hot Plug Detect/HEC-
-Shell (Ground)

Mini HDMI Type D Connector Pinout

Bringing up the rear, the HDMI Type D connector is the least popular of the three. It can be found on GoPro action cameras and select smart phones.

HDMI Pin NumberSignal
1Hot Plug Detect/HEAC-
2Utility/HEAC+ (NC on device)
3TMDS Data2+
4TMDS Data2 Shield
5TMDS Data2-
6TMDS Data1+
7TMDS Data1 Shield
8TMDS Data1-
9TMDS Data0+
10TMDS Data0 Shield
11TMDS Data0-
12TMDS Clock+
13TMDS Clock Shield
14TMDS Clock-
15CEC (Control)
17SCL (DDC clock)
18SDA (DDC data)
19+5 V Power (power EDID/DDC)